留学生论文网源于英伦 服务世界 专业代写服务12年
当前位置: 首页 留学生论文

留学生社会学毕业论文-The Ins and Outs or Adultery-社会宗教如何对待通奸问题

时间:2012-02-28 11:22:48来源: 作者:www.liuxulw.com 点击:0
提供留学生社会学毕业论文-The Ins and Outs or Adultery-社会宗教如何对待通奸问题
The Ins and Outs or Adultery Introduction Despite different religions, cultural historical and economic background, most of the people treat adultery negatively. There are few exceptions, conditioned by historical and cultural background but we will not study these cases. In my work I will proceed from the assumption that adultery or infidelity is dangerous and destroying for marriage and relationship and thus for the society. I will try to study the way our society treats adultery, historical preconditions of such attitude and the way media and religion influences social opinion and individuals when concerning this issue. Adultery in the modern society Adultery is usually defined as sexual intercourse of one of married person with anybody but his or her legal spouse. Infidelity and unfaithfulness, are another names for adultery. In everyday speech people use term infidelity or just cheating to describe this phenomenon. In modern society adultery generally assumes sexual intercourse, which can be the only prove of infidelity. There were periods in the history when the limits of adultery were not so narrow and even innocent flirting could be regarded as infidelity and cause server consequences. In Hawaii, for example, there existed more than 20 kinds of adultery and each of them had different measure of guilt. In the courts the person who’s committed adultery is usually referred as respondent and his companion is called co-respondent. The spouse of the respondent is called cuckold. In the beginning this term was used to refer to men, whose wives have been unfaithful but the tendency of the last years show that women are oftener and oftener are also referred to as cuckold. In the history of mankind adultery was severely sentenced and punished. In some counties the price for adultery was not less than human life. Unfortunately, during the human history the attitude to male adultery was much more loyal that to female one. In many societies unfaithful women were severely sentenced, deprived of their rights while men didn’t get even social reproach for the same actions. During the ruling of Napoleon husband could ask for the divorce from his wife if she had committed adultery. At the same time adultery of the husband unless it was committed in family home wasn’t enough reason for the wife to ask for divorce. There always were and still are countries where adultery isn’t a reason for divorce. Adultery isn’t still illegal in Austria, Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan. In the United States laws concerning adultery and legal punishment for it differ in different states. There are states where adultery is severely punished, up to imprisonment, like in Pennsylvania, for example, and there are one where there is no legal punishment for adultery. The changes in the definition of marriage cause the changes in the definition of adultery. Till recent times marriage was defined as a union between two people of the opposite sex. Legalization of homosexual relationship in some countries lead to the changes in the definition of marriage and now adultery can’t also be regarded as sexual intercourse with the person of the opposite sex outside the marriage. Despite all the legal punishment and social disapproval, the problem of adultery and fidelity exists in the modern society and even vice verse, it becomes the object of concern of many specialists and ordinary citizens. The results of survey show that eight of ten people condemn adultery. But at the same time the Janus Report show that “More than one-third of men and one-quarter of women admit having had at least one extramarital sexual experience.”(Janus, 65). Another survey, performed by the National Opinion Research Center, which works of the basis of Chicago University had shown almost the same results. The results of the survey showed that about 25 percent of men and about 17 percent of women commit adultery (Schrof, 118). This results show that adultery is a serious problem for the modern society and it takes frightening scope. One forth of all married men had sexual intercourse outside their marriage at least one time in his life. Though lower than with men, result with women are also disturbing. If to take into account that adultery is called among the main reasons of the divorce, the problem of adultery can’t be left without attention. Another interesting conclusion can be made if to compare the results of the surveys. The results show that a considerable part of the people who treat adultery negatively still have extramarital relationship. This means that people turn to infidelity even knowing that it’s bad and can have bad consequences. Infidelity becomes common issue and condemnation of the society doesn’t stop people. The cases when legal punishment was used as a punishment against adultery are very rare in the modern society. Unfortunately, despite all the measures taken by the society to prevent adultery, percentage of extramarital relationship grows and attitude of the member of the society to it becomes more and more loyal. Adultery becomes a common phenomenon in the modern society and people who suffer from it have to go through humiliating court procedure in order to prove the quilt of their partner. In addition, this can be possible only in the case of divorce. Most of the world religions denounce infidelity but statistics show that religious people also have extramarital affairs. High moral standards set up by the Church are often neglected by its believers. Survey taken by Newsweek prove that about 30 percent of protestant ministers had an affair outside the marriage. This percentage is even higher than among non-religious respondents. The Journal of Pastoral Care gives even higher percentage of adultery. These sad results prove that even religious authorities can not influence the problem of adultery. The levers of social influence can not help to solve the problem even if enforced by the opinion of religious authorities.
  但现在它意味着这个问题没有解决方案,它不值得尝试着去解决它。奸淫的行为是危险的破坏和婚姻的婚姻是一个主要的社会成分。有几个原因,创造的错误观测通奸,可能导致其经济增长。犯人们经常成为著名的对象的投机的大众媒体。普通人的生活跟明亮和多样化的名人都有palpitating的心。他们的私人生活经常全部或不诚实成为通奸和杂志文章的主题,电视和电台的采访。名人,很适合普通民众经常会成为不执行模式的深入道德的行为。在大众媒介大声的广告,他们的私人生活与容易行为采用一种行为模式于绝大多数的人。这是不公平的,只怪的开关大众传媒在社会的道德规范。我认为大众传媒不仅反映了社会的水平和发展前景作进一步的发展。如果是这样,我们得到一个很悲惨的景象是艺术家和其他公众人物取代灵性领袖和成为道德规范的创始人和行为模式。这是特别注意公众注意的开关从数字和著名的崇高道德标准的人得到他们的名声不总是像样的方式。在这种情况下,大众传媒服务服务不好推广这种新趋势。另外一些精神病学家和医师广泛的神话对可能使用通奸的挽救婚姻。了解一夫多妻制的男性经常被用来解释男性通奸。一些专家声称,一个人可能不会满足于只和一个女人有性关系,创建一个非常好的借口婚外恋关系,甚至更多,他们就能创造一个非常危险的刻板印象,当男人有性关系只有在他们的妻子觉得侵犯,甚至损坏。另一个危险的刻板印象不是很专业创造的精神病学家声明人无法面对自己的性吸引异性。自由意志和选择的自由,连同能力控制我们的本能区分我们从动物和认识人通奸,向这些本能的奴隶,我们打破这个限制动物与人之间。另一种危险犯的错误状态,是非常有用的,因为它的婚姻带来了新的和新鲜的情感的双方的合作伙伴。这种表述在流行杂志不反映真实状态事件的统计数据显示在亦然。最新研究证实了“不忠成为65%的离婚的理由。“(皮特曼,59岁)。另一个不那么极端,但是仍然有危险的意见,不是美国通奸有害于婚姻,可以很容易的克服和被遗忘的人。这是不必要的提到,每个人都有不同的道德规范和治疗问题是不同的,统计数据表明,通奸可能是有害的,是有害的婚姻和它的病例最多。结论代写留学生毕业论文有许多的神话里,这样的态度说明通奸和造成严重问题,破坏社会,道德和伦理规范,让大危险进一步的后代。我们不得不承认很少有机会影响个人的私人生活比过去在过去。社会责难和宗教的威胁不是很有效,因为它们曾经在过去。人们获得越来越多的权利和自由。它是一个自然的和非常积极的过程。但有一个条件。自由更多要求承担更多的责任,人们应该考虑进行道德和伦理规范的现代社会,包括对待婚姻和奸淫,如果他们想要过一种和谐社会和提供稳定的,幸福的未来,我们的孩子。
But nowadays it means that the problem has no solution and it’s not worth trying to resolve it. Adultery is destroying and dangerous for marriage as the marriage is one of the main social components. There are several reasons, which create wrong perception of the adultery and may cause its growth. Very often adultery of famous people becomes the object of speculation of the mass media. Ordinary people follow bright and diverse life of celebrities with palpitating heart. Very often their private life full or adultery and dishonesty becomes the main themes of magazine articles, TV and radio interviews. Celebrities, who very often become ideal for ordinary people don’t perform the pattern of thorough moral behavior. Loudly advertised by mass media, their private life and easy behavior is adopted as a behavioral pattern by the vast majority of people. It would be unfair to blame only mass media in the switch of moral norms of the society. I think that mass media only reflects the level of the society and its perspective for further development. If this is the case, we get a very sad picture as artists and other public figures replace the spiritual leaders and become the founders of moral norms and behavioral patterns. It’s important to pay attention to the switch of public attention from figures with high moral standards to famous people who get their fame by not always decent ways. In this case mass media serves a bad service popularizing this new tendency. In addition some psychiatrists and physicians widespread myths about the possible use of adultery for saving the marriage. The idea about male polygamy is often used to explain male adultery. Some specialists, who state that a man can not be satisfied with sexual relationship with one woman only create a very good pretext for extramarital relationship and even more, they create a very dangerous stereotype when men who have sexual relationship only with their wives feel infringed and even damaged. Another dangerous stereotype created by not very professional psychiatrists state that people can not confront their sexual attraction to the opposite sex. Free will and freedom of choice, together with the ability to control our instincts distinguishes us from animals and recognizing people who turn to adultery to be the slaves of these instincts we break this limit between animals and humans. Another dangerous mistake states that adultery can be very useful for the marriage as it brings new and fresh emotion to both partners. Such statements in popular magazines don’t reflect true state of events as statistics show just vice versa. Latest researches have proven that “infidelity become the reason of 65 percent of divorces.” (Pittman, 59). Another not so extreme but still dangerous opinion states that adultery is not harmful for marriage and can be easily overcome and forgotten. It’s needless to mention that all people have different moral norms and treat problem differently and statistics show that adultery can be harmful for marriages and it is harmful in the most cases. Conclusion There are many myths, which justify adultery and such an attitude creates serious problems, destroys social,http://www.liuxuelw.com/lxsbylw/2012/0228/910.html moral and ethical norms and brings big danger for further generations. We have to admit that there are fewer opportunities to influence the private life of an individual than it used to be in the past. Social censure and religious threats are not so effective as they used to be in the past. People obtain more and more rights and freedoms. It’s a natural and very positive process. But there is one condition. More freedoms require more responsibilities and people should think about reevaluation of moral and ethical norms of the modern society, including the attitude to marriage and adultery if they want to live an harmonious society and provide stable and happy future for our children. References