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The Great Gatsby-美国文学评论论文-《了不起的盖茨比》赏析

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The Great Gatsby摘要《了不起的盖茨比》-The Great Gatsby-美国文学评论论文-《了不起的盖茨比》赏析-我们要看一下上下文的小说,其主要人物、主题和符号和将试图探讨“美国梦”的概念,提出

The Great Gatsby
摘要《了不起的盖茨比》

本文致力于通过分析斯科特菲茨杰拉德著名小说《了不起的盖茨比”。我们要看一下上下文的小说,其主要人物、主题和符号和将试图探讨“美国梦”的概念,提出了在一般的小说。

弗朗西斯·司各特·菲茨杰拉德关键生于1896年,他是一个聪明的孩子,但是他在学校的成绩并不是那么好。然而他设法成为普林斯顿大学的学生在1913年。在大学他要么做得不好,他已被送往军事服务公司于1917年在同一时间,当第一次世界大战刚刚结束的时候。当他成了一名少尉他被派往阿拉巴马州,在那里他遇到了他的爱情——一个少女的17 -赛尔达Sayre。起初她答应嫁给他,但后来取消了他们的婚礼,因为她期望钱和乐趣。在1920年有一个巨大的文学成功菲茨杰拉德刊登的天堂的这一面。现在他有足够的钱去做另一次的尝试成为赛尔达的丈夫。大部分这些事件相关,从他的小说《了不起的盖茨比》。这个故事的叙述者——尼克Carraway收到一个教育搬到纽约战争结束后一样的作家。盖茨比的爱情故事非常接近自己的爱情故事。菲茨杰拉德在事业的顶点时菲茨杰拉德陷入世界的聚会和乐趣,同时开发更多的为了赚钱,请赛尔达尽其所能。他的英雄——盖茨比也扔掉钱疯狂派对组织一个目的——吸引黛西听他的。经济大萧条的时代带来多少欢乐对于作者来说,以及赛尔达遭受精神崩溃,他开始喝很多酒。在1937年,他决定到好莱坞去写剧本,当他工作时的爱在小说的最后一个大亨,他死于心脏病,仅44岁。这是重要的是前面提到的《了不起的盖茨比》不是简单的小说,这是一个真正的历史编年史时间称为“爵士乐时代”在美国,它突显了因酒精时禁止、走私犯赚了一大笔钱,混乱和暴力统治的美国人来说,当地下文化发展和整个美国严厉的震惊状态是在第一次世界大战之后。钱的价值主要是夸大了。因此美国梦的的衰落是1920年代的一大主题的《了不起的盖茨比》。毫无疑问,这是一个浪漫的故事关于一个男人和一个女人,但在现实中有更深的理念在这部小说。故事的背景是一些地区在纽约长岛和整定中扮演着重要的角色的消息的作者。《了不起的盖茨比》是一个极具象征意义的返观自照于1920年代的美国作为一个整体,尤其是美国梦的瓦解前所未有的繁荣的时代和材料超额”(斯科特·唐纳森,250)。美国梦的方式是错误的并帮助组织的疯狂党派盖茨比每个星期六。在那些时候,一个人从中层社会背景在美国可以成为一个好运气而蔑视美国贵族的新富投机者。这些社会趋势描述了杰拉德的帮助下,他主要的英雄。相关的“旧的钱”和“新钱”提出了小说的地理标志:东方蛋是贵族的地方住,并建立西卵——“白手起家的”。用他的旁白——尼克,作者讲他的美国梦的观点——这是“原来大约发现,个人主义,和追求幸福的权利”(也许,肯尼斯林廷骏,200)。这个梦想由容易坏了金钱和降低社会价值观,相同的情况下,盖茨比的梦想是关于他的爱情和黛西,他希望配得上她的爱纯净和她的唯物主义。结果他的梦想是毁了他对象-戴西其实并没有值得现实”…和盖茨比美国文学论文
This paper is devoted to analysis of a famous novel by Scott Fitzgerald “The Great Gatsby”. We are going to take a look on the context of the novel, its main characters, themes and symbols and will try to investigate the notion of “American dream” in general and presented in the novel.
Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was born in 1896, he was an intelligent child but his marks at school were not that good. However he managed to became the student of Princeton in 1913. At college he was not doing well either and he was taken to military service in 1917 at the same time when the First World War was ending. When he became a second lieutenant he was sent to Alabama, where he met his love – a young girl of 17 – Zelda Sayre. At first she agreed to marry him, but then cancelled their wedding because of her wish for money and fun. By the year 1920 Fitzgerald had a great literary success after the publication of This Side of Paradise. Now he had enough money to make another attempt to become Zelda’s husband. Most of these events are related to those from his novel The Great Gatsby. The narrator of the story – Nick Carraway received an education and moved to New York after the war the same as the writer. The love story of Gatsby is very close to the love story of Fitzgerald himself. Being at the height of his success Fitzgerald plunged into the world of parties and fun and at the same time into writing more in order to earn money and please Zelda as much as he could. His hero – Gatsby was also throwing away money when organizing crazy parties with one single aim – to attract Daisy’s attention to him. The times of Great Depression brought little joy for the writer as well, as Zelda suffered from nervous breakdown and he started to drink a lot alcohol. In 1937 he decided to go to Hollywood to write screenplays , there when he was working upon the novel The Love of the Last Tycoon, he died because of heart attack, being only 44 years old. It is important to mention that The Great Gatsby was not simply a novel, this was a real historical chronicle of the time called “the Jazz Age” in America, it highlights the times when because of alcohol prohibition, bootleggers earned a lot of money, chaos and violence ruled the people in America, when underground culture harshly developed and the whole America was at the state of shock after the first World War. The value of money was mostly exaggerated at that time. Thus the decline of American Dream of the 1920s is one of the main themes of The Great Gatsby. There are no doubts that this is a romantic story about a man and a woman, but in reality there are deeper ideas in the novel. The setting of the story is some area of Long Island in New York and the setting plays an important role for the message of the author. “The Great Gatsby is a highly symbolic meditation on 1920s America as a whole, in particular the disintegration of the American dream in an era of unprecedented prosperity and material excess” (Scott Donaldson, 250). The way how American Dream is corrupted is presented with the help of crazy parties organized by Gatsby every Saturday. At those times a person from middle social background in America could make a good fortune whereas American aristocracy scorned the new rich speculators. These social trends are described by Fitzgerald with the help of his main heroes. The correlation of the “old money” and “new money” is presented in geographical symbols of the novel: East Egg is the place where the established aristocracy lived and West Egg – “the self-made rich”. Using his narrator – Nick, the author told about his views of American Dream - it was “originally about discovery, individualism, and the pursuit of happiness” (Eble, Kenneth, F., 200). This dream was corrupted by easy money and lowered social values, the same situation is with Gatsby’s dream about his love with Daisy, his pure wish to deserve her love and her materialism. As a result his dream is ruined as his object- Daisy is not actually worth it in reality “… and Gatsby was

1. Scott Donaldson, ed., Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1984).


overwhelmingly aware of the youth and mystery that wealth imprisons and preserves, of the freshness of many clothes and of Daisy, gleaming like silver, safe and proud above the hot struggles of the poor.” (Eble, Kenneth, 70); the same happened to the American Dream and its objects of money and fun. The Americans in 1920s were looking for the old times when their dreams were worth something and want to return these times, Gatsby is also trying to return past: “ ‘Can’t repeat the past?’ he cried incredulously. ‘Why of course you can!’” (Miller, James E., Jr., F. 45).
Another important theme of the novel is comparison of the two rich classes – of old aristocracy and of new rich people. Daisy and Tom both belong to the first group, they are presented like people with taste, grace and elegance, whereas the people from West Egg are vulgar and lacking social taste. Gatsby in his pink coat and ignorance towards Sloanes’ invitation is the bright example of this. But the fact is that those from East Egg seem to be absolutely cold and heartless natures, not paying much attention to the people they hurt and this is well shown at the end of the novel when Tom and Daisy simply leave for a new house. “They were careless people, Tom and Daisy- they smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness… They can use their wealth and position to escape whatever they choose.” (Stern, Milton R., 113).
The word - careless - is important for the ideas of the novel, the heroes of Fitzgerald - Tom and Daisy - are careless towards other people, towards each other, it is because of the ease of their lives and mindless and irresponsible style of life. Not only East Egg and West Egg are important geographical symbols of the novel, the valley of ashes represents the amoral wish for money and pleasures.

1.Eble, Kenneth, F. Scott Fitzgerald, New York: Twayne, 1963
2.Miller, James E., Jr., F. Scott Fitzgerald: His Art and Technique, New York: New York University Press, 1966
The weather described in the story as well passes to the whole mood of it. When Gatsby and Daisy are reunited, it started to rain, this rain contributed to creating an atmosphere of melancholy; as soon as sun appears their love seems to be awaken. During one of the hottest days of that summer we are the witnesses of the dramatic quarrel between Gatsby and Tom.
A very important symbol if the novel is the green light. Gatsby says to Daisy: “You always have a green light that burns all night at the end of your dock.” (Ronald Berman, 101). This green light is connected with Gatsby’s dreams and hope for good future, he considers Daisy to be this light in the darkness for him when he was looking for his goal. “In Chapter IX, Nick compares the green light to how America, rising out of the ocean, must have looked to early settlers of the new nation (Scott Donaldson, 256).
The valley of ashes was already mentioned, in this valley there is an old billboard with painted eyes on it. There is an opinion that these eyes represent God himself looking at the American people and judging them, but this association comes only to the mind of George Wilson. In a way these eyes also represent meaninglessness of the world and emptiness of its objects. Actually all the crimes of the story are unpunished and the only judges condemning the guilty heroes are these eyes.
Overall the central tragedy of this story lies not simply in the tragic love of Gatsby, not only in his death, but in the whole state of society at the time described in the novel. As it was already said the author created not simply a perfect and appealing love story, he created a kind of historical chronic of the life in America in 1920s and he paid much attention to the so-called American Dream and its presentation at that time.


1. Stern, Milton R., The Golden Moment: The Novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970.

This notion is commonly associated for me with some kind of struggle for better life, with usage of all possible and impossible factors and resources in order to win the higher positions, the higher standards of living. The idea of American dream can not be simply associated with easy money and a lot of fun. Due to some historical facts – the First World War, and to the social trends of those times in America, the notion of American Dream was severely simplified and simplified only till material wealth as the main goal. This novel can be called distinctively American, as it is about American people, about their history, about their lives and their minds, about the American society and notions of wealth and happiness. Due to its emotional and in a way philosophical presentation of the events it can not leave a reader indifferent.


1.Ronald Berman, The Great Gatsby and Modern Times (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994) and The Great Gatsby and Fitzgerald’s World of Ideas (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1997).
2. Scott Donaldson, ed., Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1984).


Sources:

1. F. Scott Fitzgerald Centenary Home Page

2. Bruccoli, Matthew J., Some Sort of Epic Grandeur: The Life of F. Scott Fitzgerald, New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1981. 140-189

3. Eble, Kenneth, F. Scott Fitzgerald, New York: Twayne, 1963. 56-219
4. Lehan, Richard D., F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Craft of Fiction, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1966 . 85-148

5. Miller, James E., Jr., F. Scott Fitzgerald: His Art and Technique, New York: New York University Press, 1966. 44-99

6. Mizener, Arthur, ed., F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Collection of Critical Essays, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963. 89-317

7. Sklar, Robert, F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Last Laocoon, New York: Oxford University Press, 1967. 23-96

8. Stern, Milton R., The Golden Moment: The Novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1970. 113-115

9. “BookRags Book Notes on The Great Gatsby.” 24 April 2006.

10. Matthew J. Bruccoli, ed., F. Scott Fitzgerald on Authorship (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1996). 98-99

11. Ronald Berman, The Great Gatsby and Modern Times (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994) and The Great Gatsby and Fitzgerald's World of Ideas (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1997). 56-156

12. Scott Donaldson, ed., Critical Essays on F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1984). 248-256

13. Ernest H. Lockridge, ed., Twentieth century interpretations of The Great Gatsby: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968). 385-397