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法语英式化论文加拿大法语英式化论文 French soccer paper of the Canadian French

时间:2012-04-18 11:27来源:www.liuxulw.com 作者:法语英式化论文 点击:
法语英式化论文加拿大法语英式化论文 French soccer paper of the Canadian French British papers-Canada French of British research-Canada French and France belong to the same kind of French although language, but for both in Can
法语英式化论文,加拿大法语英式化论文 French soccer paper of the Canadian French British papers Canada French of British research 【 pick to 】 Canada French and France belong to the same kind of French although language, but for both in Canada and France respectively of the two different environment development for more than two centuries, so there are some differences between the two. Canada French geographical environment and history by the influence of the environment, develop the characteristics of different in French, which is the most outstanding is its British cavitation phenomenon. At present, the domestic to Canada French English cavitation phenomenon have had many research, but from the language variants Angle analysis of this phenomenon is not obvious see more, based on the social linguistics theory, research Canada French written and spoken English cavitation phenomenon and development trend, hope to open up gives the field of a new perspective, so, also for this research field for further development of the pioneering a new train of thought. 【 key words 】 French Canadian British tendency Canada is a typical immigration country, is also a bilingual country, the 1969 first "the official language law" officially confirmed the official language is English and French. Canada is both members of the commonwealth, and French country and the area the members of the organization. As early as in 17, 18 th century, French is first came to Quebec in this area. French natural also become the region of speech communication leading role, but the fate of the national language and national political fate is closely linked. 19 century, as the British colonists invasion force and the American economic boom brought cultural osmosis, ruler of the language gradually immersed to Canada in French. Look from environmental position, Quebec area had been surrounded by English area, the british-born people in North America in the world of life for nearly 400 years later, the English has become one of the biggest characteristic of French Canadian. Although people constantly take some language Quebec boycott policies, such as legal restrictions, French also only in classroom teaching, family communication, religious affairs activity remains absolutely status and in public administration, business financial, industrial technology are associated with the use of English. Therefore, English foreign words are filled with Canada French language, from daily spoken to the vocabulary and grammar sentence written language, English has greatly changed the Canada French. A Canadian French written English change 1. According to the English writing used to write French words Mutual borrowing, in English and French language is always in good a relatively common writing phenomenon. Although loanwords keep original intention, but shall be their spelling rules, so in the written are different. And Canada, due to the influence of French English larger, often confuse this, for example: Room and date. Such as: on October 19, 2010 is often in oct. 24. 2010, need not France in the form of French 24. The oct. 2010. 5 PM and 5:00 p.m. written often don't 17 h. The locals have also been English writing, the influence of the individual numerals French French a conjunction connection, such as trente-et-UN, cinqant-et-UN. While the Canadian French but according to the English expressions trente way-UN (thirty one), cinqant-UN (fifty one). And some words are written in English pronunciation of Canada French words, such as canne (can; canned), mappe (map; map), breuvage (brewage; cold drink), etc. 2. According to the English grammar habits organization French sentence structures The English expression is a deviation from the regular French grammar patterns of expression, from grammar point, this also can call is normal use grammatical mistakes. If you want to appear in spoken English is inevitable, written in such a way of expression of time to consider in should be avoid actually. But in Canada in French, written in English grammar can be seen everywhere, the phenomenon, this British written expression has become one of the main characteristics of French Canadian. Many domestic this language researchers to Canada in the French word, the verb, prepositions, etc all vocabulary a deeper study on, the author here will no longer hereby, mainly from the syntax structure to Canada on the features of the French English some tentative analysis. First, similar grammatical structure, use the English expression, this is Canada French in grammar shows an important characteristic. The present participle is in French and English there is a grammatical phenomenon, but in the two languages in the use of the grammar rules and express meaning quite have the difference. Canada's magazine, the common use of the time now, but most of the English grammar structure with close off the requirements of the French grammar. Such as, le journaliste l 'a vue chantant avec expression. (reporters saw her singing extremely rich expression.) This is a typical example of British French, English has a lot of the verb structure is: verbs + sb + doing STH. In French correctly in the way of expression should be: le journaliste l 'a vue chanter avec expression. Second, the passive voice and a in French and English in the presence of the grammatical phenomenon. But in French, active tense ownership is the position. Only in order to give prominence to the differences in thought, performance rich technique, or to emphasize the importance of the subject, the French people use the passive. So in French, the passive and active voice of expression meaning is not the same. But Canada, due to the influence of French English, in many cases will abuse passive. For example, a Canadian news have such a word: les routes sont dites dangereuses dans tout l 'etat. This is a word of English grammar habits according to express the passive example, this sentence structure has deviated from the French grammar rules. The French French expression should be: on rapporte que toutes les routes DE l 'etat sont dites dangereuses. Two Canadian French of English In daily in the spoken language, English French can be found everywhere. Many people are neither Quebec speak French will also speak English, they often put the English vocabulary, sentence patterns with French vocabulary sentence patterns cross use. As time goes on, the English of the French expression is widely accepted and used, as Canada French one of the features of spoken English. 1. According to the English pronunciation used to read French words Add cent the plural form of s pronunciation: elle a donne dix cents (s pronunciation) a cette vendeuse. To er at the end of the English foreign words sometimes hair into e, sometimes hair eur, sometimes it is two kinds of circumstances combination: best-seller (bestseller) into the er hair eur; Pullover (pullovers) as the er hair into e also can send into eur. French pronunciation rules requirement for foreign words, generally USES the French pronunciation way, for example: not to be camping hair into came-ping, also cannot send into tcheque cheque. Canada French region familiar with English pronunciation, therefore, in our daily communication easy to all these issues. Canada in French the English word the pronunciation of words at the end of the use and in accordance with the English pronunciation, such as: photostat, srandard, thermostat, at the end of the word of the letters are to pronunciation. 2. According to the English expression use of French words Because the people most French Canadian English, so under the influence, the people in the area of English language thinking mode of the trend is very clear. Especially in the oral communication, due to the accuracy of the oral English language requirements is low, so, people in the moment of blurt out more or less will be often contact with another kind of language expression way have influence. Such as: merci (thanks.) bienvenu. The answer you're welcome, English often is welcome, French is directly used to and its meaning of the word use relative, and sometimes also can hear directly in one of the biggest welcome. Be like again, when making a phone call ask the other party is who, France is the expression of the French qui est a l 'appareil? The expression of the French and Canada is qui parle? This is applying the English expressions who is speaking? Answer, if want to say "please don't hang up," the French French expression is ne quittez pas, s' il vous plait. Canada French expression occasionally use gardez la ligne. This is the expression of the English to hold on. 3. Direct use of English vocabulary Some English words when use is copy them directly, such as call lancer UN call, often used the phrase. Agreed to answer the is used in nearly all ok! Ok! Cen 'est pas lefun; No interest. Causer du trouble; Cause trouble. Some English words according to the order of French is it, if, if the shop is on sale, in France generally will say en sold, and Canada, says French prix special, this is the special prix copy by English. Three of the French British trend in Canada From the social linguistics Angle, the nation is a national language influence the important social differentiation factors. At present, many countries are composed of many ethnic groups, such, political unrest and ethnic conflicts often can cause the language of the conflict. In Quebec, Canada because of the French occupy long-term advantage, face siege of English, the region has had many strive for independence act. Language is a national important characteristics, it reflects the nation's collective psychological, culture state, is carrying a nation's history. 1. The language variants perspective of French Canadian English tendency Bilingual phenomenon is actually in a society of the existing in two or more national language variants. The formation of the language variants often and social politics, culture, history and inseparable. According to FeiGeSong (ferguson) bilingual theory, he will coexist in the same society two kinds of language form, is divided into the upper language (variete haute) and the lower language (variete basse). Early Canada French region, French is absolutely the upper language, and English is the language, but bilingual language is continuous in the process of evolution. To Canada French district as an example, as the French upper language is to appear in the church, literature, speech and university, and the English language as the lower, who exists only in popular conversation and popular literature, but with politics, history, culture, and many other social factors, English has appeared in the French public education in Canada, and become the official languages of Canada. In theory, bilingual phenomenon is normal linguistic phenomenon, but we cannot ignore the expression of language conflict (le conflit linguistiaue). Use conflict (conflit) and bilingual (diglossie) coexist these two words not refers to two languages (or two kinds of language variations) function and balanced and stable distribution, but means a kind of language to another language rule (mais comme la domination d "une langue sur une autre). Regional economic and culture, due to the influence of factors, Canada is to the French English ruling momentum, though, in the proportion of language use in English is not account for absolute advantage, but it has set up a file in the most applications at the same time and the French appeared. 2. From the Canadian government language policy analysis of French Canadian trend in English Canada in 1969 for a formal announcement of the bilingual and double culture national and then practicing multicultural policies. On the surface, these measures conducive to two kinds of language in the same country's stable development, but in fact is hidden behind policy in English and French conflict. Language and national inseparable, who is not willing to admit that his own language at a disadvantage. But in recent years several times of survey data show, use the sharp reduction in French, and use English man is increasing quickly. In the English language and English culture of Canada by French, natural meeting to protect its own value and careful to English. In Quebec, Canada is French landslide area, the area has held many times an independence movement. But even if is such, because of the two bilingual policy language does not exist any tendency of support, so, with its economic and cultural English advantage, have gradually penetration in the area in all its aspects. Two power balance of language is impossible in frequent contact the coexistence, the weak will be replaced. From the social linguistics point, the weak language culture will be the dominant language invasion and eventually assimilation. Canada in French English status rise will make Canada French in trouble. And the official languages of Canada policy also not to give the French provide more way out. In the background of global integration, http://www.liuxuelw.com/jndlw/2012/0306/935.html a country coexistence multicultural and many kinds of language is an inevitable trend. English in Canada the French rising trend doesn't mean the area of French litter. In the language of the current policy, the French Canadian and French canadians can hold mutual respect and mutual tolerance and mutual learning attitude to protect their national language and national culture. reference [1] bergeron (leandre) dictionnaire DE la langue quebecois [m]. Montreal-nord: leandre bergeron & VLB editeur, 1980:22 ~ 28 [2] FangRenJie. French social linguistics [m]. Changchun: jilin people's press, 2003:323-327   加拿大法语的英式化研究
  
  【摘要】加拿大法语和法国法语虽然属于同一种语言,但由于两者分别在加拿大和法国这两种不同的环境下发展了两个多世纪,所以两者之间存在一定的差异。加拿大法语受地理环境及历史环境的影响,发展出异于法国法语的特点,其中尤为突出的就是它的英式化现象。目前,国内对加拿大法语的英语化现象已有很多研究,但从语言变体角度分析这一现象还不明显多见,本文借助这一社会语言学理论,研究加拿大法语书面语和口语的英式化现象及其发展趋势,希望开辟出该领域的一个新视角,所以,也为该研究领域今后的发展开拓一种新思路。
  
  【关键词】法语加拿大英式化趋势加拿大是一个典型的移民国家,也是一个双语国家,1969年通过的首部《官方语言法》正式确定了其官方语言为英语和法语。加拿大既是英联邦的成员,又是法语国家与地区组织的成员。早在17、18世纪,法国人就率先来到魁北克这一地区。法语自然也成为该地区言语交际的主角,但民族语言的命运与民族政治的命运息息相关。19世纪,随着英国殖民者的武力入侵和美国经济腾飞带来的文化渗透,统治者的语言逐渐浸入到加拿大法语中来。从环境位置上看,魁北克地区已经完全被英语区包围,在北美洲这个英裔人世界中生活了近400年后,英语化已成为加拿大法语的最大特点之一。尽管魁北克人不断采取一些语言抵制政策,如法律上的限制,法语也只能在课堂教学、家庭交际、宗教事务活动中保持绝对地位,而在公共行政、商务金融、工业科技中均伴有英语的使用。因此,英语外来词充斥了加拿大法语语言,从日常口语到书面语中的词汇句型乃至语法,英语都极大地改变了加拿大法语。一加拿大法语书面语的英式化1.按英语的书写习惯写法语单词相互借词,在英语和法语良好总语言中是一种较为常见的书写现象。借词后虽然保持原意,但应有各自的拼写规律,所以在写法上也不尽相同。而加拿大法语由于受英语的影响较大,往往混淆这一点,例如:间和日期。如:2010年10月19日就常写成oct.24.2010,不用法国法语的形式24.oct.2010。下午5点常写成5:00p.m.而不用17h。数词的书写也受到英语的影响,法国法语中的个别数词有连词连接,如trente-et-un,cinqant-et-un。而加拿大法语却按照英语的表达方式trente-un(thirtyone),cinqant-un(fiftyone)。还有一些词是按照英语发音书写的加拿大法语词,比如canne(can;罐头),mappe(map;地图),breuvage(brewage;冷饮料)等。2.按英语的语法习惯组织法语句式结构英语化表达方式是一种偏离正规法语语法的表达模式,从语法角度讲,这也可以称为是正规语法的错误使用。如要在口语中出现是在所难免的,在书面语这样有斟酌时间的表达方式中其实就应该回避的。但在加拿大法语中,书面语的语法中随处可见英语化的现象,这种英式的书面表达法已经成为加拿大法语的主要特点之一。
  
  国内很多这方面的语言研究者对加拿大法语在古词、动词、介词等词汇方面都作了较为深入的探讨,笔者在这里就不再赘述了,下面主要从句法结构上对加拿大法语的英语化特点做一些尝试性的分析。第一,相似的语法结构,多采用英式表达,这是加拿大法语在语法上显示出的一个重要特点。现在分词是在法语和英语中都存在的一个语法现象,但在这两种语言中该语法的使用规则和表达含义颇有差异。加拿大的杂志中,常见现在分时的使用,但大多与英语的语法结构相近而偏离法语语法的要求。如,lejournalistel’avuechantantavecexpression.(记者见到她极富表现力的演唱。)这是一个英式法语的典型例子,英语中有大量动词的结构是:动词+sb+doingsth.而在法语中正确的表达方式应该是:lejournalistel’avuechanteravecexpression.第二,被动语态又是一个在法语和英语中同时存在的语法现象。但在法语中,主动语态是占有绝对地位的。只有在为了突出思想的差异,表现丰富的手法,或者为了强调主语的重要性时,法国人才使用被动语态。所以在法语中,被动语态和主动语态所表达的含义并不相同。但是加拿大法语由于受英语的影响,在很多情况下都会滥用被动语态。比如,一则加拿大新闻中有这样一句话:lesroutessontditesdangereusesdanstoutl’etat.这就是一句按照英语的语法习惯表达被动语态的例子,这句话基本结构上已经偏离了法语语法的规则。法国法语的表达方式应该是:onrapportequetouteslesroutesdel’etatsontditesdangereuses.二加拿大法语口语的英式化在日常口语中,英式的法语比比皆是。许多魁北克人既会讲法语也会讲英语,他们常常把英语的词汇、句型换成法语的词汇句型交叉使用。随着时间的推移,这种英语化的法语表达被广泛接受并使用,成为加拿大法语口语的一大特色。1.按照英语的发音习惯读法语单词cent复数形式时加s的发音:elleadonnédixcents(s发音)àcettevendeuse.以er结尾的英语外来词有时发成è,有时发eur,有时则两种情况混用:best-seller(畅销书)中的er发成eur;pullover(套头毛衣)中的er既可发成è也可发成eur。
  
  法语发音规则要求对外来词,一般采用法语发音方式,例如:不能将camping发成came-ping,也不能将chèque发成tchèque。加拿大法语地区的人熟悉英语发音,因此,在日常交际中容易出现上述错误。加拿大法语中英语借用词词末的发音也依照英语发音,如:photostat,srandard,thermostat等词末的字母都要发音。2.按英语表达方式使用法语词句由于加拿大法语区的人们大多会英语,所以受其影响,该地区的人们语言思维方式英语化的趋势十分明显。尤其是在口语交际中,由于口语表达对语言的准确性要求较低,所以,人们在脱口而出的瞬间或多或少都会被常接触的另一种语言表达方式所影响。如:merci(谢谢).bienvenu.回答不客气时,英语惯用的是welcome,法语中则直接用来与其意义相对的词使用,甚至有时也能听到直接用welcome作答的。再如,打电话时问对方是谁,法国法语的表达是quiestàl’appareil?而加拿大法语的表达是quiparle?这是套用英语的表达whoisspeaking?回答时,如果想说“请别挂上”,法国法语的表达是nequittezpas,s’ilvousplait.加拿大法语表达时偶尔会用gardezlaligne.这也是套用英语的表达holdon.3.直接使用英语词汇有的英语词汇在使用时是直接照搬的,如打电话时常用lanceruncall之类的用语。表示同意的回答时几乎都用ok!ok!cen’estpaslefun;没有趣。causerdutrouble;引起麻烦。有的英语词汇则按照法语的顺序来说,如,如果是商店打折时,在法国一般会说ensold,而加拿大法语则说prixspécial,这是由英语的specialprix照搬来的。
  
  三加拿大法语的英式化趋势从社会语言学角度来看,民族是影响一个国家语言分化的重要社会因素。目前,很多国家都是多民族构成的,这样,政治动乱以及民族矛盾往往会引起语言上的冲突。加拿大魁北克地区由于法语占据的长期优势,面对英语的围困,该地区已有过多次争取独立的举动。语言是一个民族的重要特征,它反映了一个民族的集体心理、文化状态,也承载了一个民族的历史。1.语言变体角度分析加拿大法语的英式化趋势双语现象实际上就是在一个社会中存在的两种或多种的民族语言变体。语言变体的形成往往与社会政治、文化、历史密不可分。根据费格松(ferguson)的双语理论,他将同时存在于同一社会的两种语言形式,分为上层语言(variétéhaute)和下层语言(variétébasse)。早期的加拿大法语地区,法语是绝对的上层语言,而英语则是下层语言,但双语语言是处于不断演变过程中的。以加拿大法语区为例,作为上层语言的法语是出现在教堂、文学、演讲和大学里的,而作为下层语言的英语,曾仅仅存在于通俗会话和大众文学中,但随着政治、历史、文化等诸多社会因素的影响,英语已经出现在加拿大法语区的公众教育里,并且成为加拿大的官方语言。从理论上讲,双语现象是正常的语言学现象,但我们不能忽视其所表现出来的语言冲突(leconflitlinguistiaue)。使用冲突(conflit)和双语(diglossie)并存这两个词不是指两种语言(或者两种语言的变异)的功能和平衡而稳定的分布,而是指一种语言对另一种语言的统治(maiscommeladominationd’unelanguesuruneautre)。
  
  由于受地域和经济文化等因素的影响,加拿大法语区的英语有趋于统治地位的势头,尽管在语言使用的比例上英语没有占到绝对优势,但是它已在大部分场合里同时与法语出现了。2.从加拿大政府的语言政策上分析加拿大法语的英式化趋势加拿大于1969年正式宣布其为双语和双文化国家,随后还推行多元文化政策。从表面上看,这些措施有利于两种语言在同一国家的平稳发展,但实际上政策背后还隐有英语和法语的冲突。语言和民族密不可分,谁也不愿承认自己的语言处于劣势。但近些年的几次调查数据显示,使用法语的人在急剧减少,而使用英语的人却快速递增。在英语语言和英语国家文化包围下的加拿大法语,自然会为保护其自身价值而对英语格外警惕。加拿大魁北克地区是法语占绝对优势的一区,该区就曾多次举行独立运动。但即便是这样,由于双语政策对两种语言不存在任何倾向性的扶持,所以,英语以其经济文化的优势,已逐渐渗透在该区的各个方面。两种力量均衡的语言是无法在频繁的接触中共存的,弱者必将被取代。从社会语言学角度讲,处于弱势的语言文化必将被处于主导地位的语言入侵并最终同化。加拿大法语地区的英语地位上升,必将使加拿大法语面临困境。而加拿大的官方语言政策也并没有给法语提供更多的出路。在全球一体化的大背景下,一个国家共存多元文化和多种语言是一个必然的趋势。英语在加拿大法语区的上升趋势并不代表该地区法语的凋落。在现行的语言政策下,英裔加拿大人和法裔加拿大人可以抱着相互尊重、相互包容、相互学习的心态保护各自的民族语言及民族文化。
  
  参考文献[1]bergeron(léandre)dictionnairedelalanguequébécois[m].montréal-nord:léandrebergeron&vlbediteur,1980:22~28[2]方仁杰.法语社会语言学[m].长春:吉林人民出版社,2003:323~327

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