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Studies on Fu Donghua’s Translation of Gone with the Wind fr

时间:2012-10-09 09:12:40来源: 作者:www.liuxulw.com 点击:0
In this thesis, the present author attempts to give a comprehensive and objective evaluation to Fu Donghua and his controversial translation Gone with the Wind from theperspective of Skopostheorie by answering three questions

Introduction
 

1. Intention of the Study
The famous American novel Gone with the Wind was first introduced to China in1940 by a controversial translator Fu Donghua (1893-1971). On one hand, histranslation of Gone with the Wind enjoyed great popularity among the Chinese readers.On the other hand, his translation was severely criticized by other Chinese translatorsand scholars for massive adoption of domestication and occasional deletion of lengthydescriptions. The intention of http://www.liuxuelw.com/gwdxlwdx/ selecting the topic lies in that a comprehensive andobjective comment is needed on Fu Donghua’s translation, which can give usenlightenment in translation study. This thesis tries to evaluate Fu’s translation byanswering the following three questions. First, what are the reasons for Fu Donghua’schoosing to translate the novel Gone with the Wind? Second, though he was severelycriticized by the translators and scholars at that time, why were his translations still wellaccepted among the Chinese readers? Third, as Fu Donghua is a controversial translator,how can we make an objective evaluation of him as a translator and his translation ofGone with the Wind from the perspective of Skopostheorie?Born in 1900, Margaret Mitchell (1900-1949), the author of Gone with the Wind,was raised in Atalanta, the capital of the Georgia State. In 1922, Mitchell worked forAtalanta Journal as a journalist, which gained her access to the materials about the CivilWar (1861-1865). In 1926, she quitted her job owing to an ankle injury and started towrite a Civil War novel under the encouragement of her husband. This was the novelGone with the Wind which took Mitchell ten years. Since the novel was first publishedin 1936, it has caused a sensation in America which brought Mitchell the Pulitzer Prizeand American publishers’ association award in 1937. In the year Mitchell was killed in a car crash in 1949, this novel had been translated into 18 different languages andreleased in more than 40 countries, sales accumulative to 8 million copies. Till today,Gone with the Wind is still one of the best sellers favored by world wide readers.Her renowned novel Gone with the Wind set the background in America during theCivil War. We used to hold the view that the southern slave owners deserved to bedefeated not only because the southerners were in the inferior position in terms ofmilitary force, slavery economy in the south was holding back the development ofcapitalistic economy in the north part and the deepening conflict of employing laborsystem endangered the unity of the country, but also because keeping slaves violated ourmoral standards. However, this novel was telling the story in a nostalgic andsympathetic tone as Mitchell herself was a southerner. Raised upon the rich soil of Tarain the south, Scarlett O’ Hara, the heroine of the novel, was a charming selfish andrebellious girl in her youth who enjoyed attracting every young man in the party.Because of the outbreak of Civil War, the fine fragile traditional life in the south wascruelly turned upside-down. The critical period witnessed the growth of Scarlett. Facedwith the hometown in chaos and poverty, she was shaped to be a tough practical andperseverant woman who exerted herself to make money in order to survive and tosupport her family. No matter what kind of situation she was in, Scarlett always kept anoptimistic attitude toward her life. That is the reason why I choose this novel as thetheme of this thesis.After Gone with the Wind was first translated into Chinese by Fu Donghua in 1940,it continued the sensation in China. The Chinese readers had been longing for theChinese version for a long time because the impressive movie adopted from the novelwith the same title had been on show for more than 40 days in Shanghai, breaking anew record of show days. Some people even chose it to be the English textbook.However, not everyone was able to read the novel in the original. As a result, there werea huge number of potential readers who expected the publication of the Chinese versionso as to meet their needs of reading. This brave and rebellious woman with subjectivefemale consciousness in the novel gave great courage to the pioneers in China during that turbulent period in the 1940s. As soon as Fu Donghua’s version was released in1940, people fell over each other in their eagerness to buy it. After that, many dramaclubs and student art groups recomposed excerpts from the novel and reshaped Scarlettas a heroine fighting against the restraints of traditions, calling people to activelyparticipate in the fight against imperialism and colonialism, and to change the fate of thewhole country. Fu Donghua’s version was written freely and well with beautiful, naturaland interesting words. In order to win the favor of the Chinese people, Fu Donghuaadopted domestication strategy while translating in many aspects, such as culture,language, narrative structure and so on (Wu Di, 2008: 110). While Fu’s version waspopular among the public, it was also severely criticized by the critics in the translationfield, because any change of the original during the translation would be considered as“rebellion” or “unfaithfulness” according to the traditionally static comparative researchmethodology.
 

2. Research Questions
This thesis is to answer three questions. First, what are the reasons for FuDonghua’s choosing to translate the novel Gone with the Wind? Every translation isdirected at an intended audience, since “to translate” means “to produce a text in a targetsetting for a target purpose and target addressees in the target circumstances” (Nord,2006: 26). There are three possible kinds of purposes in the field of translation: thegeneral purpose aimed at by the translator in the translation process, the communicativepurpose aimed at by the target text in the target situation and the purpose aimed at by aparticular translation strategy or procedure. By way of comparison and textual analysis,this thesis attempts to find out the three possible purposes during Fu Donghua’stranslation process, evaluate his translation of Gone with the Wind from the three rulesof Skopostheorie, and give him and his translation articles a pertinent judgment.Second, why did his translations still receive a great success among the Chinesereaders, though he was severely criticized by the translators and scholars at that time?Though it can be unfaithful to the source text as a part of the descriptions and psychological analysis are omitted, Fu Donghua’s translation of Gone with the Wind isconsidered to be elegant and smooth, which is still worth studying. His translation is tobe evaluated by means of comparison and textual analysis from two aspects: translationrules and translation standards of Skopostheorie. In this theory, there are three kinds ofrules: Skopos rule, coherence rule and fidelity rule.Third, as Fu Donghua is a controversial translator, how can we make an objectiveevaluation of him as a translator and his translation of Gone with the Wind from theperspective of Skopostheorie? While he was greatly favored by the Chinese readers, hewas also severely criticized by the translators and scholars. This dilemma was especiallyreflected on his translation of the classic novel Gone with the Wind. However, FuDonghua’s translation should not be over criticized before we study it in an objectiveand comprehensive way. His translation works and status as a translator should beassessed with scientific and rational attitude.The key point of this thesis is to give a rational and comprehensive evaluation toFu Donghua’s translation of Gone with the Wind from the perspective of Skopostheorie.The difficulty lies in how to apply Skopostheorie to analyzing Fu Donghua’s translationof Gone with the Wind. In other words, the difficulty lies in the confirmation of researchmethods, including the identification of the three possible purposes during histranslation process as well as the analysis of Fu Donghua’s translation in terms of threerules. In addition, the limited first-hand literature on Skopostheorie at hand adds to thedifficulty of thoroughly studying the theory and deeply analyzing Fu Donghua’stranslation. Besides, it is not easy to find the very version translated by Fu Donghua andits corresponding English edition. Without either this very Chinese version or thecorresponding original work, it would be difficult to study Fu Donghua’s translation.As for the solution, it is important to collect as much theoretical material aspossible so as to apply the theory in the translation analysis. The thesis attempts toevaluate Fu Donghua’s translation from the perspective of Skopostheorie by comparingit with the other Chinese versions of Gone with the Wind, to clarify the reasons for theadopted translation strategy, the purposes of the translators at different times and the communicative purposes of the target texts. In order to evaluate Fu Donghua’stranslation in a more comprehensive and scientific way, it is a must to leave no stoneunturned in finding the very version translated by Fu Donghua and its correspondingEnglish edition.
 

3. Organization of the Thesis
This thesis aims to find out the three possible purposes during Fu Donghua’stranslation process, evaluate his translation of Gone with the Wind from the three rulesof Skopostheorie and give him and his translation articles a pertinent judgment. Thoughit can be unfaithful to the source text if descriptions and psychological analysis areomitted, Fu Donghua’s translation of Gone with the Wind is considered to be elegantand smooth, which is still worth studying. Besides “Introduction” and “Conclusion”,there are four chapters in this thesis. In “Introduction”, it consists of three parts --significance of the research, research questions and organization of the thesis. InChapter One, studies of Fu Donghua as a translator will be made, including a briefaccount of the author’s life and his translation activities, as well as his translationviewpoints. Chapter Two mainly focuses on the previous studies on Fu Donghua’stranslation of Gone with the Wind. In this chapter, the previous studies are reviewed inthe six perspectives of rewriting theory, domestication and foreignization, culture,functional approach, hermeneutics and translation norms. In Chapter Three,Skopostheorie is to be introduced as the theoretical framework of the research, and theinfluence of the theory on translation studies discussed. In Chapter Four, the purpose ofFu Donghua’s version is to be analyzed from the perspective of Skopostheorie proposedby Hans Vermeer in three aspects. Possible results and comments are sort out in“Conclusion”.Studies of Fu Donghua’s translation could be traced to 1940s, when his translationof Gone with the Wind was severely criticized by many scholars according to thetraditionally static comparative research methodology. Such kind of evaluation is notcomprehensive, and some criticism can be subjective and one-sided. With the Skopostheorie as the theoretical framework, the basic purposes of the translator, thetranslation version and the adopted translation strategies will be discovered. And theevaluation of Fu Donghua’s version is to be made in the later part of the chapter underthe three rules of Skopostheorie. The analysis of Fu Donghua’s translation withSkopostheorie as the theoretical framework could possibly make the evaluation andjudgment reasonable, objective and comprehensive.
 

Chapter 1 Fu Donghua as a Translator 15-23
    1.1 Fu Donghua and His Translation Activities 15-19
    1.2 Fu Donghua’s Translation Viewpoints 19-23
Chapter 2 Previous Studies on Fu Donghua’s … 23-31
    2.1 From the Perspective of Rewriting Theory 23-25
    2.2 From the Perspective of Domestication … 25-26
    2.3 From the Perspective of Culture 26-27
    2.4 From the Perspective of Functional Approach 27-28
    2.5 From the Perspective of Hermeneutics 28-29
    2.6 From the Perspective of Translation Norms 29-31
Chapter 3 Skopostheorie 31-41
    3.1 Representatives and Their Standpoints 31-36
    3.2 Basic Viewpoints of Skopostheorie 36-40
    3.3 Influence of Skopostheorie on … 40-41
Chapter 4 Analysis of Fu Donghua’s Gone …41-57
    4.1 Purposes of Fu Donghua’s Translating … 41-48
    4.2 Evaluation of Fu Donghua’s Gone … 48-57
 

Conclusion
 

In this thesis, the present author attempts to give a comprehensive and objectiveevaluation to Fu Donghua and his controversial translation Gone with the Wind from theperspective of Skopostheorie by answering three questions. As for the first question,there are roughly five reasons for Fu Donghua choosing to translate Gone with the Wind.First, the Chinese people, hit by the film of Gone with the Wind, were badly in want ofthe Chinese version of the book. Second, ardent expectations were held by his friendsfor Fu Donghua to translate the novel (Fu Donghua, 1979: 1). Third, after seeing thehomonymous movie and reading through the whole novel in the original, Fu Donghuabegan to appreciate the novel and no longer considered it merely as a romance fiction.Fourth, Fu Donghua finally made up his mind to translate it out of his sense of nationalpride. As Japan already translated and published two versions in Japanese that soonbecame bestsellers, he pledged to create a Chinese version so as to win honor for thecountry. Last, the newly founded publishing house, Guohua Compilation Press,supported him to translate the novel.As for the second question, the author of this thesis analyzes Fu http://www.liuxuelw.com/gwdxlwdx/ Donghua’stranslation from two aspects: the communicative purpose of his translation and thepurposes of choosing translation strategies. Vermeer thinks translation is a purposefulhuman action, so the target text should fulfill the prospective function to the prospectivereceivers. However, the expectations, background knowledge and communicative needsof the readers greatly influence the communicative purpose of the translation and thetranslation strategies adopted. As a result, a translation can make it function when it isaccepted by the readers. To do the translation work, a translator needs to adopt specifictranslation strategies. Fu Donghua frequently adopted domestication in translationbecause he knew the reading level of the Chinese readers at that time, which in return