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领导者在组织中所扮演的角色

时间:2014-12-22 13:20:44来源: 作者:www.liuxuelw.com 点击:0
这篇文章主要介绍了经理作为一名领导者在组织中所扮演的角色。经理作为一名领导者需要根据组织的情况来做出不同的决定,同时还要应对和处理不同的情况和问题。


研究问题---Research Question:

The research question for this study is;

“How Project managers’ leadership competencies for managing the multi diverse teams can affect the performance of a project.”

文献综述---Literature review:

Managing and leading collocation (diverse) teams are very much difficult because of globalization. It is given more focus on creating and maintaining trust (working together) through proper ‘communication’ among team members and project manager. Communication is considered very much important for managers in managing the diverse teams but there are some barriers to it like different time zones and cultural differences (S.Anantatmula, 2010). Close communication is considered critical to the success of fast track projects and a clear, concise statement of project objectives is considered important. People skills focus on fostering a climate of active participation and minimal dysfunctional conflict implies an environment of trust, consistent processes without ambiguity, communicating expectations, and clarity in communications (S.Anantatmula, 2010). The current scenario of globalization has changed the management concept in many ways. It gives wide scope towards different cultures their language barriers, their perception towards the leaders’ behavior and decision. Project manager faces different challenges not only in the understanding of different perceptions but in also converting those perceptions into their actual meanings. The recent research has given it the name of encoding and decoding (Henderson, 2008 P.3 ) According to the definition of a cosmopolitan leader in an “An effective cosmopolitan leader is one who can access the strengths of his or her employees while minimizing the weaknesses.” (Wallace, V.Schmidt, 1997). However, most of the researches are more focusing on the communication gap between the employees and project manager.

Most of the researches have emphasized more on the communication and personal skills to identify the problems. However, we think that analyzing is one part but taking some corrective action and implementing some positive approach is another aspect. This approach couldn’t be explained only with the communication ability, in fact, for this one need to organize every step of their plan. Sometimes managers only focus on the project outcome, no doubt it’s very important but they can never get the positive result without the complete satisfaction of their employees. Therefore, it really becomes a challenge to align the organizational goal of project performance with the employee satisfaction. For this, managers should also try to encourage social interaction between the teams through trust. Although there are problems in working in a diverse team but through project managers can come to know that which skills are lacking in them and his team to work in that diverse environment, so in this way they can learn lot of new skills and techniques. Project managers have a great responsibility of managing their diverse teams so most of the time in global project, project mangers take so much time to have a proper planning before the initiation of the project to avoid any kind of bad circumstances in his project teams. But mangers don’t give so much importance that how will their disperse team finishes their work(working approach) so lacking this knowledge may cause more time and effort consumption which may also lead to losing the trust between team members and ultimately will cause a bad effect to the performance of the project.

Now let’s talk about a model which states that “leadership style must adapt to the prevailing cultures and the cultural differences that are present in the project environment” (S.Anantatmula, 2010). As we see that the successful global project management model starts from the ‘culture’ adaptation for team members and manager also which then depends upon the fast and ‘reliable information system’ as well as on the relationship created between diverse team members and project leader/manger through ‘trust’ which then ultimately increases and strengthens the ‘communication’ path which lead to a proper ‘planning execution and control’ of the project which positively results into high level of ‘stakeholders and customer satisfaction’, which means that our project is completed successfully.

Successful global project model (Vittal Anantatmula, 2010)

According to our point of view, there is knowledge gap in the model, which is its ‘validation of the project’. The model is made in keeping in mind the environments of Europe and America but if we talk about Africa and Asia, then we can say that there are lot of differences in the people thinking and doing projects because of diverse cultures. Therefore, before applying the model in global projects, there should be some technique to validate this model that whether this will work or not? Moreover, the project success is considered different from the project management success. Author (S.Anantatmula, 2010)has related project success with overall objectives of the project and on the other hand project management with traditional gauges. According to our opinion, “success” includes both the project success and management success.