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Obasan-二战时期日本的加拿大人的生存研究-代写加拿大政治历史论文

时间:2011-12-05 14:30来源:www.liuxulw.com 作者:留学生论文代写网 点击:
世界历史上,许多人道灾难而声名狼籍。不幸的是,不是所有的人都是众所周知的,通常人们不愿意讨论它们,如果他们没有遭受任何。主要人类社会和文化的悲剧发生在战争的结果。

Obasan
Contents介绍

世界历史上,许多人道灾难而声名狼籍。不幸的是,不是所有的人都是众所周知的,通常人们不愿意讨论它们,如果他们没有遭受任何。主要人类社会和文化的悲剧发生在战争的结果。

事实上,问题是,很多人记得战争中的赢家,他们认为一点关于那些已经失败了,但是什么是真正的分析很少是人们的命运来源于敌人的国家,生活在一个国家对他们的祖先的国家宣称战争。正是这些人的命运,那快乐Kogawa痕迹在书本" Obasan”,把它更准确揭示了加拿大人的故事,生活在日本在加拿大第二次世界大战。

代写加拿大政治历史论文在这本书里快乐Kogawa超越命运的简单描述整个国民群日本加拿大人但可能更重要的问题,而造成作者与困境,要求读者的回答自己。一个中央点整本书是文化生产的能力,从而导致五四已经创造了一些刻板印象,由于一些特殊的情况下,改变态度的代表不同的国家到每一个人。总的来说,作者显然使读者思考普遍人性价值完全相同的所有人,无论他们的起源和在同样的时间内所有的人都是平等的,不能被压抑,因为它发生在日本的加拿大人在第二次世界大战和后几年内结束,似乎只有一样东西能有效提供这样的民族和谐与社会和谐是真正民主的社会,剥夺了偏见与定型。

历史背景

摆在了工作Kogawa及其要点快乐,尤其是那些关于文化的作用,有必要住在一些历史底蕴的时代和事件中所描绘的书。

首先,应该说,主题和情节的书是非常接近的作者,谁,是日本的加拿大人,知道有什么地迎得很好。自然就会产生一个可疑的开始生效,一方面它加入一些主观这本书和感知以及解释发生的事件的讨论在时代,另一方面可能没有谁能揭示其他作者的主体问题,以充分发挥其可怕的方面,在所以的可能性中,不会如此明显的作者不同的来源。以这样一种方式可以有一个读者一个绝佳的机会,来看看情况,在里面。

所以,发生了什么事比日本在二战期间,加拿大吗?事实上,这个问题的答案并不非常愉快的到这里,特别是现在,当加拿大被认为属于数量的民主国家。正如众所周知,日本进入二战中,美国珍珠港袭击之后,美国已经宣布日本的战争。加拿大是世界上的一个部分,盎格鲁-撒克逊有着密切的政治、经济、文化与美国的关系和英国不能做任何事,除了加入这场战争了。在这一点上,日本的加拿大人的悲剧的开始。他们被看作是敌人的村庄,他们中的许多人出生,在现实生活中他们并不比任何其他公民加拿大加拿大。

然而,这样的态度形成的加拿大人基本上是日本战争宣传官员支持为了证明加拿大进入战争。结果公众舆论有了一种极端的性格。毫不奇怪,这一政策导致了拘留日本加拿大和实践脱离其馀的加拿大的社会。很明显的位置是不合理的恶化,日本加拿大人是绝对无法让民主的社会。”同时他们成为一种被赶散的人不仅对他们所导致的文化冲突隔离以来日本文化丰富加拿大社会,并被日本加拿大人就不能生存,否则他们的文化和传统。忘记保持不变的情况下直到1949年的拘留政策终于停了下来,和剥夺日本曾获加拿大人最后的机会来开发他们的文化,融入加拿大社会自由。

“Obasan”作为一种文化和解

谈到“Obasan”是必要的,它要强调的是,这本书是一个自传注意但是它的主要目标不是故事的痛苦,揭示了日本的加拿大人在二战期间,但它,而针对文化与道德之间的和解和其他日本加拿大加拿大社会。在这方面的故事小说是耐人寻味的必要性,强调要尊重每一个社区文化的最佳国家。

至于故事描写在小说中,故事是说由拿俄米,一个教师,回头看她的过去,试图了解发生了什么事她和她的同胞在第二次世界大战,尤其是她关心的命运就是她失去了她的母亲。这样一个丢失的原因很悲惨,但同时它不依赖于主要特征的故事,这是战争分隔的家庭离开母亲在日本和其他的家人在加拿大。母亲非常象征性地去她的祖先的土地,潜在的文化和国家统一的起源和与她的过去。同时她也是一个流亡日本文化的象征,它变成了,已经没有发展空间在加拿大和日本加拿大社会已经没有机会正常的文化和社会整合战后加拿大社会了。

同时这本书的中心仍然是另一个字符Obasan,阿姨拿俄米谁是一种的守护者在加拿大和日本旧传统于忽视日本加拿大面临的问题,或者象拿俄米说,她对不公平与艰辛转向石头。以这样一种方式作者很可能想表明日本文化和发展仍然是不可一世的独立无论隔离行动日本加拿大和让他们生活在一种难以忍受他们只好住在贫民窟和几年后,明确战争。另一个事实的作用作为一个守护者Obasan门将的日本文化与传统的事实是,她不能或不愿解释发生了什么,但她拿俄米拥有盒书信和日记的另一个埃米莉姑妈,她记录发生的时期。在阅读这些信件和日记拿俄米骇人听闻的细节变得熟悉的过去发生了什么,实现第二次世界大战期间她写给家人和日本的加拿大人在逃。

进一步,读小说,很明显不公平的和不容忍到什么程度的态度是日本的加拿大人在第二次世界大战时期。这本书揭示日本多少加拿大人致力于土地他们住或曾经住过,他们愿意帮助无论他们的现状。在这方面事件当拿俄米告诉由姑母抚养大的。拿俄米说:“她告诉我,当弗雷泽山谷淹没和土地,曾经属于日本加拿大人被水淹,有一个民族主义的公众情感渲泄帮助农民,该地区居民”(Kogawa)。此外,她继续“我们寄钱,”她说,“钱来帮助人们谁拿了我们的农场!我想我们都希望它会给我们的诚信”(Kogawa)。显然这样希望证明日本加拿大人他们是加拿大社会中不可或缺的一部分,他们可以和睦起源和他们的邻居无论在过去的罪行。不幸的是他们所得到的回应是恰恰相反,他们的期望:“我们最终被藐视两倍的狗,当作了”(Kogawa)。

此外,在极端的情况下剥夺日本加拿大移民加拿大政府强迫他们并离开这个国家,在那里他们中的许多人出生,他们认为是他们的祖国。这一政策有一个司法支持了自从日本加拿大签署文件,同意移居日本,而“那些拒绝签下被描述为不合作,并否认特权”(Kogawa)。

显然,加拿大政府政策的第二次世界大战期间是错误的,并完全接受一个民主的国家。不幸的是,政治和经济时期镇压也是一个时期的众多文化方面的问题,因为这是很不容易的发展文化,在这种情况下。但是日本的加拿大人高度赞赏他们的文化,他们很关心这个以及关于他们的传统工艺品和风俗。在这方面,值得一提的是注重“集父亲和叔叔年轻人站满襟并列之一…叔叔的手搁在船体的一个玲珑剔透的详细的工艺。这不是一个渔船或一个普通的游艇,但是在一个雅致的船设计,由父亲,多年来,许多冬天的夜晚。一件艺术品。“多美丽!“RCMP军官说,在1941年,当他看到那”(Kogawa)。后者的事实是尤其重要,因为它揭示,加拿大人真正欣赏艺术作品和真正的美丽,无论它的创造者。


1. Introduction
2. The historical background
3. “Obasan” as a means of cultural reconciliation
4. Conclusion
5. Bibliography

Introduction
The world history is notorious for numerous humanitarian catastrophes. Unfortunately not all of them are widely known and as a rule people prefer not to discuss them if they did not suffer from any of it. Basically human social and cultural tragedies occur in the result of a war.
In fact the problem is that many people remembers the winners in the war and they think a little about those who have lost but what is really seldom is the analysis of the fate of the people originating from the enemy country and living in a country against which the country of their ancestors declared the war. It is exactly the fate of such people that Joy Kogawa traces in the book “Obasan”, to put it more precisely the author reveals the story of Japanese Canadians and their life in Canada during the World War II.
In this book Joy Kogawa goes beyond a simple description of fate of the whole national group of Japanese Canadians but what is probably more important the author rather poses questions and dilemmas the readers are supposed to answer themselves. One of the central points of the whole book is the power of cultural production, which can result in re-evaluation of some stereotypes that have been created because of some extraordinary circumstances and change the attitude of representatives of different nations to each other. In general, the author obviously make the readers think about universal human values which are absolutely identical for all people, regardless their origin and in the same time all people are equal and cannot be repressed as it occurred to Japanese Canadians in the World War II and a few years after its end and it seems that the only thing that can effectively provide such social and national harmony is really democratic society, deprived prejudices and stereotypes.
The historical background
Before discussing the work of Joy Kogawa and its main points, particularly those concerning the role of culture, it is necessary to dwell upon some historical details of the epoch and events depicted in the book.
First of all, it should be said that the theme and the plot of the book is very close to the author, who, being Japanese Canadian, knows quite well what were the sufferance of his people. Naturally it produces a dubious effect since, on the one hand, it adds some subjectivity to the book and perception as well as interpretation of the events that occurred during the epoch discussed, on the other hand there is probably no other author who could reveal the entity of the problem and show its terrible aspects, which, in all probability, would not be so obvious for the authors of a different origin. In such a way a reader can have a wonderful opportunity to look at the situation from within.
So, what happened than to Japanese Canadian during the World War II? In fact the answer is not very pleasant to here, especially nowadays, when Canada is considered to belong to the number of democratic counties. As it is well-known, Japan entered the World War II and attacked the US Pearl Harbour and after that the US had to declare the war on Japan. Canada, being a part of the Anglo-Saxon world and having close political, economic and cultural relations with the US and the UK could not do anything but join the war too. At this point the tragedy of Japanese Canadians starts. They were perceived as enemies in the country where many of them were born and in actuality they were not less Canadian than any other citizens of Canada.
However, such attitude to Japanese Canadians was basically formed by war propaganda, which officials supported in order to justify Canadian entering the war. As a result public opinion had a kind of extremist character. Not surprisingly that such a policy led to the internment of Japanese Canadians and their practical isolation from the rest of the Canadian society. Obviously the position of Japanese Canadians was unreasonably deteriorated and was absolutely unacceptable for democratic society. In the same time they became a kind of outcasts that led not only to their isolation but to the cultural conflict since rich Japanese culture was rejected by Canadian society while Japanese Canadians could not live otherwise forgetting their culture and traditions. The situation remained unchanged until 1949 when the policy of internment and deprivation had finally stopped and Japanese Canadians eventually had got an opportunity to develop their culture freely and integrate into Canadian society.
“Obasan” as a means of cultural reconciliation
Speaking about “Obasan” it is necessary to emphasize that the book is an autobiographic note but its main goal is not to reveal the story of sufferings of Japanese Canadians during the World War II but it rather aims at the cultural and moral reconciliation of Japanese Canadians and the rest of Canadian society. At this respect a story told in the novel is thought provoking and emphasizing the necessity to respect the culture of every community populating the country.
As for the story depicted in the novel, the story is told by Naomi, a schoolteacher, who is looking back at her past and attempts to understand what happened to her and her compatriots in the World War II and especially she is concerned about the fate of her mother whom she lost. The reason of such a lost is quite tragic but in the same time it does not depend on the main characters of the story, it is the war that separated the family leaving the mother in Japan and the rest of the family in Canada. Quite symbolically that the mother goes to the land of her ancestors, underlying the cultural unity with the country of her origin and with her past. In the same time she also is a symbol of an exiled Japanese culture, which, as it turns to be, has no room for development in Canada and the Japanese Canadian community has no opportunities for normal cultural and social integration in Canadian society after the war has broken out.
In the same time in the centre of the book remains another character Obasan, the aunt of Naomi who is a kind of a guardian of old Japanese traditions in Canada and who tends to ignore all the problems Japanese Canadian faces, or, as Naomi says, she responds to the injustice and hardships by turning to stone. In such a way the author probably intended to show that Japanese culture remains untouchable and develops independently regardless the efforts to isolate Japanese Canadians and make their life unbearable in a kind of ghettos they had to live during and a few years after the war. Another fact that underlines the role of Obasan as a guardian or keeper of Japanese culture and traditions is the fact that she cannot or does not want to explain Naomi what happened but she possesses the box of letters and diaries of another aunt Emily, in which she recorded the events of that epoch. On reading these letters and diaries Naomi gets acquainted with appalling details of the past and realizes what has happened during the World War II to her family and to Japanese Canadians at large.
Further, on reading the novel, it becomes obvious to what extent unjust and intolerant was attitude to Japanese Canadians in the period of the World War II. The book reveals how much Japanese Canadians were devoted to the land they live or used to live and they are ready to help regardless their current situation. At this respect the episode when Naomi told by her aunt. Naomi says that “she told me that when the Fraser Valley flooded and the land that had once belonged to Japanese Canadians was under water, there was a public outpouring of help to the farmers and residents of the area” (Kogawa). Moreover, she continues ‘We sent money,’ she said, ‘money to help the people who had taken our farms! I imagine we were hoping that it would show our good faith” (Kogawa). Obviously in such a way Japanese Canadians wanted to demonstrate that they are an essential part of Canadian society and they could live in peace with their neighbours regardless their origin and the offences made in the past. Unfortunately what they have got in response was quite the contrary to their expectations: “we end up being despised twice as much and treated like cringing dogs” (Kogawa).
Moreover, in a situation of extreme deprivation of Japanese Canadians Canadian government forced them to emigrate and leave the country, where many of them were born and which they considered to be their motherland. Such a policy had a juridical support since Japanese Canadians had to sign papers agreeing to emigrate to Japan, while “those who refused to sign were described as uncooperative and denied privileges” (Kogawa).
Obviously the policy of Canadian government during the World War II were wrong and absolutely unacceptable for a democratic country. Unfortunately the period of political and socio-economic repression was also a period of numerous cultural problems since it was not easy to develop the culture in such circumstances. Nonetheless Japanese Canadians highly appreciated their culture and were very concerned about it as well as about their traditional crafts and customs. At this respect, it is noteworthy to pay attention to the episode when “Uncle and Father as young men standing full front beside each other… One of Uncle’s hands rested on the hull of an exquisitely detailed craft. It wasn’t a fishing vessel or an ordinary yacht, but a sleek boat designed by Father, made over many years and many winter evenings. A work of art. ‘What a beauty!’ the RCMP officer said in 1941, when he saw it” (Kogawa). The latter fact is particularly important because it reveals the fact that Canadians can really appreciate works of art and real beauty, regardless its creators.
Unfortunately, such a link between communities has been lost because of the war, which separated Canadians people. In such a situation, Japanese Canadians turns to be the most suffering community sine they feels as aliens in the country which was their home. Sadly to admit but many Japanese Canadians had the same fate as her Uncle when he “was taken away, wearing shirt, jacket and dungarees. He had no provisions nor did he have any idea where the gunboats were herding him and the other Japanese fishermen in the impounded fishing fleet” (Kogawa). Not surprisingly that the most bright and positive recall of Naomi is about the house of her childhood “more splendid than any house I have lived in since” ().
Finally, the author can suggest nothing else but remembering the old traditions, culture and the past, exactly like aunt Emily who appeals to Naomi saying “you have to remember! You are your history” (Kogawa). Moreover, what is probably more important is that she appeals not only to Naomi and her compatriots but it rather sounds as the general appeal to all people of Canada, or even the entire world: “Don’t deny the past. Remember everything. If you’re bitter, be bitter” (Kogawa).

Conclusion
Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the author appeals to remembering that is the only way to prevention the repetition of mistakes of the past and he attempts to reconcile both cultures Japanese and Canadians for through remembering their past and knowing it in details they would more probably forgive each other and become equal and mutually enriching each other. It is also obvious that such reconciliation is possible due to the art, which is universal and representatives of different communities can understand it. Anyway, on reading “Obasan” by Joy Kogawa, a reader realizes that such tragedies should not be repeated and in really democratic countries all people should be really equal in both rights and responsibilities.

Bibliography:
1. Adachi, Ken. The Enemy That Never Was: A History Of The Japanese Canadians. Toronto: OUP, 1998.
2. Beeler, Karin. Biography of Joy Kowaga. Toronto: Routeledge, 1999.
3. Knutson, Susan. Encyclopedia of Literature in Canada. Ed. W.H. New. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002.
4. Kogawa, Joy. Obasan. Boston : David R. Gordine, 1982.
5. Roy, Miki. Justice In Our Time: The Japanese Canadian Redress Settlement. Toronto: OUP, 1999.
6. Stevens, Peter. The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature. Ed. Eugene Benson and William Toye. Toronto: OUP, 1997.

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